Reaching retirement is exciting, but having enough to maximize your quality of life during retirement is key to living out a desirable retirement. Many Americans are able to live on their Social Security benefit in retirement, some have a pension to supplement, while others have workplace retirement plan and IRA savings. If you're fortunate enough to have maxed out all of the available plans to you, there may be another vehicle to consider.
While you’ve likely heard of a backdoor Roth IRA, but for some looking to maximize their retirement savings even further, a mega backdoor Roth IRA may be another way to enhance your savings.
What is a mega backdoor Roth IRA? Below we’re breaking down what you need to know about this retirement savings strategy.
A Reminder About Traditional IRAs vs. Roth IRAs
The money you contribute to your Roth IRA is after-tax dollars, meaning you will have already paid income tax on it before putting it into your account. In turn, that money continues to grow tax-free. Because you already paid taxes on that income before contributing it to your Roth IRA account, you do not have to pay taxes on it when you withdraw money in retirement. This, essentially, creates tax-free withdrawals in retirement.
If you choose to place your money in a traditional IRA account, you are using pre-tax dollars. This means the money has not been taxed, which can be an effective strategy in lowering your present taxable income. In return, the money in your traditional IRA account grows tax-deferred. Once you reach retirement and begin making withdrawals, you will be responsible for paying taxes on the withdrawals.
With both traditional and Roth IRA Accounts, there are income limitations and annual maximum contribution limits that may be adjusted annually by the IRS. Before contributing to your account, you’ll want to check these limits or ask your financial advisor to clarify.
Backdoor Roth IRA Explained
Roth IRA accounts have income limits. In 2021, you are ineligible to contribute to a Roth IRA account if you earn:1
- $140,000 or more as a single filer
- $208,000 or more as a joint filer
If you are a high earner with an income above the IRS’s income limit for Roth IRA accounts, you still have the option to create a backdoor Roth IRA. Just as it sounds, this option allows high earners to bypass the income limits and still utilize the tax advantages of a Roth IRA account.
Here’s how to create a backdoor Roth IRA account in a nutshell:
- Open and contribute to a traditional IRA.
- Convert your traditional IRA to a Roth IRA account (your account administrator will provide the necessary paperwork and instructions to do this).
- Once tax season rolls around, pay taxes on the contributions (essentially you’re paying back the tax deduction you received when initially contributing to your traditional IRA).
- Pay taxes on any additional gains your traditional IRA account may have made over time.
What Is A Mega Backdoor Roth IRA?
A mega backdoor Roth IRA is a complicated strategy that allows high earners, or perhaps someone who experiences a windfall of cash, to contribute up to $37,500 in a Roth IRA or Roth 401(k) account - on top of their regular contributions. This option is not available to everybody, as some 401(k) plan providers do not allow it.
If you’re considering this option, you’ll want to work with your financial advisor or CPA to determine first whether it may be beneficial to you, and whether or not you may be hit with an unexpected tax bill as a result.
How Does a Mega Backdoor Roth IRA Work?
In order for a mega backdoor Roth IRA to work, your employer must allow after-tax voluntary contributions to be made to your 401(k) account. These contributions would be a separate bucket of money from your regular 401(k) contributions, and they would not count toward your 401(k) contribution limit. You’ll want to check with your human resources department or plan administrator to determine whether this option is available to you.
Next, you’ll need your 401(k) plan to allow you to move your after-tax money. They may allow you to remove money from your 401(k) plan (while you are still employed and working at the company) into either a Roth 401(k) portion of your plan or out into a Roth IRA account - separate from the original 401(k) plan.
If your plan does not allow for in-service withdrawals, you may be limited to waiting until you leave your job to have the opportunity to roll that after-tax money into a Roth IRA account. For most people looking to use a mega backdoor Roth IRA strategy, this may not be a suitable option, as it can shorten the amount of time your money can grow tax-free in an account.
Who Does a Mega Backdoor Roth IRA Work Best For?
Mega backdoor Roth IRAs are complicated strategies with lots of steps, and they aren’t ideal for everyone. This strategy is typically most useful for those who max out their regular contribution limits and/or earn too much to be eligible for a Roth IRA. In addition, these people will have a substantial amount of savings leftover that they’re ready to dump into the after-tax bucket of their 401(k).
If this doesn’t sound like you, you may be better off utilizing a traditional or Roth IRA account and your 401(k) account to save for retirement.
It’s not a simple process, but if you think a mega backdoor Roth IRA may be the right option for you, have a conversation with a financial planner or tax professional to get started. They can help cover the finer details of this process and answer any questions about your potential tax liability if you choose to use this strategy.
Investment Advisory Services offered through EnRich Financial Partners LLC, a Registered Investment Advisor.
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